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Global metabolite profiles of rice brown planthopper-resistant traits reveal potential secondary metabolites for both constitutive and inducible defenses

By November 19, 2019May 12th, 2020Publications

Uawisetwathana U, Chevallier OP, Xu Y, Kamolsukyeunyong W, Nookaew I, Somboon T, Toojinda T, Vanavichit A, Goodacre R, Elliott CT, Karoonuthaisiri N.

Metabolomics. 2019 Nov 19;15(12):151. doi: 10.1007/s11306-019-1616-0.


Introduction: Brown planthopper (BPH) is a phloem feeding insect that causes annual disease outbreaks, called hopper burn in many countries throughout Asia, resulting in severe damage to rice production. Currently, mechanistic understanding of BPH resistance in rice plant is limited, which has caused slow progression on developing effective rice varieties as well as effective farming practices against BPH infestation. Objective: To reveal rice metabolic responses during 8 days of BPH attack, this study examined polar metabolome extracts of BPH-susceptible (KD) and its BPH-resistant isogenic line (IL308) rice leaves. Methods: Ultra high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QToF-MS) was combined with multi-block PCA to analyze potential metabolites in response to BPH attack. Results: This multivariate statistical model revealed different metabolic response patterns between the BPH-susceptible and BPH-resistant varieties during BPH infestation. The metabolite responses of the resistant IL308 variety occurred on Day 1, which was significantly earlier than those of the susceptible KD variety which showed an induced response by Days 4 and 8. BPH infestation caused metabolic perturbations in purine, phenylpropanoid, flavonoid, and terpenoid pathways. While found in both susceptible and resistant rice varieties, schaftoside (1.8 fold), iso-schaftoside (1.7 fold), rhoifolin (3.4 fold) and apigenin 6-C-α-L-arabinoside-8-C-β-L-arabinoside levels (1.6 fold) were significantly increased in the resistant variety by Day 1 post-infestation. 20-hydroxyecdysone acetate (2.5 fold) and dicaffeoylquinic acid (4.7 fold) levels were considerably higher in the resistant rice variety than those in the susceptible variety, both before and after infestation, suggesting that these secondary metabolites play important roles in inducible and constitutive defenses against the BPH infestation. Conclusions: These potential secondary metabolites will be useful as metabolite markers and/or bioactive compounds for effective and durable approaches to address the BPH problem.

Keywords: Brown planthopper resistance; LC-HRMS; Metabolite profiling; Multi-block principal component analysis; Oryza sativa; Thai Jasmine rice

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